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Foliose lichens
Foliose lichens

Tree lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria)

The tree lungwort is a large lichen, which grows loosely attached to trees or rocks in moist, pollution-free environments of northern and western Britain. It produces divided (forked) fronds more than 8 cm long, with a network of characteristic ridges and depressions. ruitbodies are relatively rare, but consist of reddish-brown apothecia borne on the ridges of the fronds. The margins of the fronds bear small granular structures.


Fronds of tree lungwort growing on the trunk of a tree, with fruiting bodies of the wood-rot fungus Armillaria mellea (caps about 9 cm diameter).


Close-up of part of a Lobaria frond, showing apothecia (fungal fruiting bodies of the lichen) on the ridges, and granular structures on the margins and ridges of the fronds.


Part of a Lobaria frond showing outgrowths from the granular structures at the margin of the frond.

Dog lichen (Peltigera canina)

This lichen is very common across Britain, on walls, rocks, fallen logs, stabilised sand dunes and soil. It has large lobes, up to 5 cm diameter, and has conspicuous white root-like growths on the undersurface (single arrowhead in the image below). It commonly produces shield-like apothecia (fungal fruiting structures), one of which is shown by the double arrowhead in the image below.


Peltigera canina growing among mosses near the base of a tree stump.

Cladonia species

Crustose lichens on rocks

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